Vol 1-2 Case Report

Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis (IPA) Post Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT): Is Immunological Dysfunction Play a Role?

Ashok Kuwal1*, Naveen Dutt2, Nishant Chauhan2

1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Pacific Institute of Medical Sciences, India

2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, AIIMS Jodhpur, India

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The majority of cases are detected during the period of neutropenia (following conditioning regimen) or immunosuppression (treatment of graft versus host disease). Development of IPA after one-year post- HSCT is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of a 43-year-old male who developed IPA two years after an allogenic stem cell transplant and 406 days after stopping the immunosuppressive medication.

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2018/2.1111 View / Download Pdf
Vol 1-2 Mini Review

The Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates (ANPs): Antonin Holy's Legacy (2012 - 2018)

Erik De Clercq*

Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2018/2.1114 View / Download Pdf
Vol 1-2 Commentary

Running Commentary on the Article: Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Bangladesh Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2017 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-017-2921-z

Harish C Gugnani*

Retd. Professor & Head, Division of Medical Mycology, Department of Microbiology, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi, India

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2018/2.1112 View / Download Pdf
Vol 1-2 Mini Review

Plasmid-mediated Colistin Resistance: What Do We Know?

Tanise V. Dalmolin1,2, Daiana de Lima-Morales1, Afonso L. Barth1,2*

1LABRESIS – Laboratório de Pesquisa em Resistência Bacteriana, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

2Programa De Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

Polymyxins (polymyxin E/colistin and polymyxin B) are considered the last-resort therapy against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales; however, the resistance of Enterobacterales to polymyxins is increasing worldwide. Until 2015, this resistance was related to chromosomal mutations, but in November 2015, it was described in China the transferable colistin resistance in animals and humans isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae, mediated by the mcr-1 gene (mobile colistin resistance), located in a plasmid. Following the first description of the mcr-1 gene, it has been reported in several regions of the world, in different bacterial species, from different sources and others mcr variants have been described. Moreover, the co-occurence of the mcr gene and other antimicrobial resistance genes was reported. This discovery changed the scenario of resistance to polymyxins, as this gene could be promptly disseminated among Gram negative bacilli becoming a major concern for public health. This review summarizes recent data about the plasmid-borne mcr colistin resistance gene.

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2018/2.1109 View / Download Pdf
Vol 1-2 Commentary

Commentary: Improved Malaria Case Management in Formal Private Sector Through Public Private Partnership in Ethiopia: Retrospective Descriptive Study

Mesele Damte Argaw1,2*, Thandisizwe Redford Mavundla2, Binyam Fekadu Desta1,2, Wondwosen Shiferaw Abera1, Kassa Daka Gidebo3, Temesgen Ayehu Bele4, Dereje Dillu4

1USAID Transform: Primary Health Care, JSI Research & Training Institute, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

2University of South Africa, Department of Health Studies, Pretoria, South Africa

3Welaita Sodo University, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia

4Federal Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2018/2.1118 View / Download Pdf
Vol 1-2 Mini Review

First National Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Survey (NDRS) from India - An Eye Opener

Gyanshankar P. Mishra1*, Jasmin D. Mulani2

1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

2Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

Recently the report of the first National Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Survey (NDRS) from India was released on the occasion of World TB Day this year, i.e., 24th March 2018. The salient features were as follows: 1. MDR-TB is 6.19% (CI 5.54–6.90%) among all TB patients with 2.84% (CI 2.27–3.50%) among new and 11.60% (CI 10.21–13.15%) among previously treated TB patients. 2. Among MDR-TB patients, additional resistance to any fluoroquinolones was 21.82% (17.33–26.87%), and 3.58% (1.8–6.32%) to any second-line injectable drugs. 3. Among MDR-TB patients, additional resistance to at least one drug from each of the two classes, i.e., fluoroquinolone and second-line injectable drugs (XDR-TB) was 1.3% (0.36–3.30%). 4. Any first- or second line drug resistance among all TB patients is 28.0% (CI 26.77– 29.29%) with 22.54% (CI 21.10–24.10%) among new and 36.82% (CI 34.64–39.04%) among previously treated TB patients. 5. Any isoniazid resistance is 11.06% (CI 9.97–12.22%) and 25.09% (CI 23.1–-27.11%) among new and previously treated TB patients, respectively. 6. Any pyrazinamide resistance is 6.95% (CI 6.07–7.91%) and 8.77% (7.53–10.13%) among new and previously treated TB patients, respectively. The current article reviews the findings of the survey along with their practical implications in the present-day clinical scenario.

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2018/2.1117 View / Download Pdf
Vol 1-2 Mini Review

Insecticide-treated Netting Materials for Malaria Vector Control: A Simplified Study Protocol for Assessing Residual Bio-efficacy, Community Perceptions, Practices and Durability of the Field-distributed Nets

Vas Dev*

Senior Scientist (Retired), National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi, India

Long-lasting insecticidal nets are being promoted as evidence-based intervention for malaria vector control globally. In keeping with increased procurement and supplies, it was mandated to monitor and evaluate field-distributed nets for residual bio-efficacy and physical integrity. Towards this objective, a simplified study protocol is proposed which can be conveniently employed to assess the current bio-efficacy to help programme officials making informed decisions for additional logistics enabling net replacement in due time.

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2018/2.1123 View / Download Pdf
Vol 1-2 Mini Review