Vol 1-3 Mini Review

Recent Trends in Leishmania Research: A Therapeutic Perspective

Junaid Jibran Jawed, Subrata Majumdar*

Division of Molecular Medicine, P-1/12, C.I.T. Scheme VII-M, Kolkata-700054, West Bengal, India

Leishmaniasis is a spectrum of disease caused by the infection of protozoan parasite Leishmania mainly affecting the antigen presenting cell of the host. The disease is although considered as neglected tropical disease still it is not completely eradicated. Majority of the issues related to the therapeutic approach is due to increased cytotoxicity of the drugs, less effectiveness, high cost and occurrence of drug resistance. Therefore, recent advancement in the field of parasitology has taken into consideration of the specific arms of immunity which can be triggered with the help of natural products, synthetic molecules or parasite specific ligands which helps in the restoration of host protective immunity and recovery from the infection. Therefore, in this review, we have highlighted the recent advancement in the field of Leishmania research taken into consideration of the therapeutic perspective. We have shown that apart from therapeutic potential of the available drugs and vaccination approach, the immune-therapy are emerging as the modern regime of treatment where the effectiveness of the therapy is significantly increased and making it safer and promising.

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2018/3.1120 View / Download Pdf
Vol 1-3 Commentary

Commentary: "Rigidity and Resistance of Larval- and Adult Schistosomes-Medium Interface"

Federica Migliardo1,2*, Hatem Tallima3, Rashika El Ridi3

1Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale D’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina, Italy

2Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, UMR8000, Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay cedex, France

3Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo 12613, Egypt

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2018/3.1127 View / Download Pdf
Vol 1-3 Mini Review

Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in Adult Patients Preventive Measures: A Review of the Recent Advances

P Batra1, P Mathur1*, M. C. Misra2, M Kumari1, O Katoch1, F Hasan1

1JPNATC, Department of Lab Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

2Department of Surgery, Mahatma Gandhi University of Medical Sciences & Technology, Rajasthan, India

Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is the most commonly acquired ICU infection worldwide affecting nearly 10-30% of ventilated patients and accounting for nearly 25% of all types of ICU infections. VAP has been associated with increased morbidity, mortality, duration of ICU stay, duration of mechanical ventilation and nearly 50% of the ICU antibiotic prescription. After understanding the pathogenesis of VAP, various preventive measures have been tried by various authors. The currently accepted preventive measures are being used in most centres as the VAP prevention bundle. This includes: elevation of the head of the bed between 30oand 45o, daily sedation interruption and assessment of readiness to extubate, daily oral care with Chlorhexidine, peptic ulcer disease prophylaxis and deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. In the current manuscript, we will be discussing the available preventive measures. Other measures which have been shown to be effective include selective oropharyngeal and digestive tract decontamination, use of antimicrobial coated ET tubes. However, more studies need to be done to see if these can be included in the VAP prevention bundle.

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2018/3.1122 View / Download Pdf
Vol 1-3 Mini Review

The Toxoplasma Tour de Force to Unfold its Intravacuolar Developmental Program

Georgios Pavlou, Isabelle Tardieux*

Institute for Advanced Biosciences (IAB), Team Membrane dynamics of parasite-host cell interactions, CNRS UMR5309, INSERM U1209, Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular single-celled eukaryotic parasite with an impressive ability to invade virtually all nucleated cells from all warm-blooded animals, within a second time-scale. The invasive T. gondii tachyzoite achieves this feat by injecting a multi-unit nanodevice in the plasma membrane and underlying cortical cytoskeleton of the targeted cell that serves as an anchor point to withstand the parasite invasive force. Whether this nanodevice could also contribute at the latest step of invasion when the budding entry vesicle pinches off of the plasma membrane as a parasitophorous vacuole had not been yet addressed. Using fluorescent versions of both a parasite nanodevice component and a reporter for the target plasma membrane in conjunction with quantitative high-resolution live imaging, Pavlou et al. characterized the nanodevice toroidal shape once inserted in the membrane as well as its stretching and shrinking when accommodating the passage of the several micron-sized ellipsoid-shaped tachyzoite. Tracking in real time the motion of internal eccentric markers allowed defining the tachyzoite final rotation along the long axis which imposes a twisting motion on its basal pole and directs closure of the torus hence promoting both sealing and release of the entry vesicle. Monitoring distinct host cell plasma markers allowed Pavlou et al. to propose that the twisting motion could also act as an initial mechanical trigger for the transition to the intracellular lifestyle. Their publication therefore brings evidence for a key new contribution of the nanodevice to end the high-speed multi-step invasion process.

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2018/3.1125 View / Download Pdf
Vol 1-3 Short Essay

When Cholera Came to Pibor

Gisle Schmidt*

Sofienbergt 3b, N-0551 Oslo, Norway

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2018/3.1128 View / Download Pdf
Vol 1-3 Mini Review

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and goblet cells: are Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma zoonotic infectious diseases?

Ellen S. Pierce*

13212 East Blossey Avenue, Spokane Valley, Washington, USA

Infectious agents are known causes of human cancers. Human papillomaviruses and species of fungi are associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is a complication of Barrett’s esophagus, the replacement of the normal squamous epithelium lining the esophagus by gastric or intestinal columnar mucous epithelium with or without goblet cells. As intestinal metaplasia of the stomach is the precursor lesion of Helicobacter Pylori-associated gastric cancer, a microorganism may cause the metaplasias of the esophagus that are the precursors of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the cause of a chronic gastrointestinal enteropathy in domestic ruminants and a suspected zoonosis, results in bovine small and large intestinal goblet cell hyperplasia. MAP colonization of human gastric mucus and/or invasion of cardiac surface mucus cells, and resulting proliferation and proximal migration, may result in the metaplasias of Barrett’s esophagus. MAP therefore may be one infectious cause of Barrett’s esophagus-associated esophageal adenocarcinoma.

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2018/3.1126 View / Download Pdf
Vol 1-3 Commentary

Commentary: Antituberculosis Drug Induced Fixed Drug Eruption- A Case Report

Jitendra H. Vaghela*

Senior resident, Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2018/3.1116 View / Download Pdf