Vol 2-3 Commentary

Commentary: Loss of Function Dysbiosis Associated with Antibiotics and High Fat, High Sugar Diet

Aaron W. Miller1,2

1Department of Urology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA

2Department of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Sciences, Cleveland, OH, USA

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2019/3.1141 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-3 Mini Review

Electro-Filtering Paper Spray Ionization Method

Fangling Wu1, 2, Chuan-Fan Ding1, 2*

1Institute of Mass Spectrometry, School of Materials Science & Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China

2Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

A relatively rigid and good electrical conductive copper filter severed as a substrate for the paper spray named Electro-Filtering Paper Spray Ionization (EFSI) is mini reviewed. The copper filter is used to increase the conductivity and pressure tolerance for the paper substrate, which can insure sufficient, efficient and direct sample-solvent extraction for different types of solid samples, and also a low voltage is required for paper spray. The capability and reliability of EFSI-MS were demonstrated experimentally for indirect high-throughput component analysis or the desired ion signals for a wide range of solid samples by selecting and optimizing different extraction solvents, which is not feasible with conventional ESI or direct paper spray methods. Simultaneously, trace targeted substance for the large-volume sample can be effective extracted and pre-concentration by the optimized solvent for direct mass spectrometry analysis with no or extremely minimal sample preparation effort for the EFSI method. Besides, with the attractive features of cost-effectiveness, rapid, process simplicity and high-throughput, the potential and novel applications of the EFSI-MS or EFSI-MS-MS can focused in the fields of environment, bio-science, food safety, and in-vitro diagnostics in clinical routine analysis are expected in the future work, where substantial time and labor could be saved when investigating the potential causes of disease.

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2019/3.1140 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-3 Mini Review

Atypical Herpetic Viral Posterior Uveitis: Non-necrotising Retinitis and Focal Retinitis

Dicle Hazirolan1, Gulten Sungur1

1Health Sciences University, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ophthalmology Department, Ankara, Turkey

Human herpes viruses are the most common etiologic agents in posterior viral uveitis. They remain latent in the infected host with a risk of reactivation that depends on various factors, including virulence, host immunity, age and comorbidities. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN), progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN), and CMV retinitis are the most frequent forms. Posterior viral uveitis may occur in atypical clinical entities as non-necrotising herpetic retinitis (NNHR) and focal posterior viral retinitis. The spectrum of herpetic retinopathies might start with focal retinitis, the mildest form, and followed by more severe forms as NNHR, PORN and ARN. The differential diagnosis of atypical viral retinitis is difficult clinically, as it can mimic various kinds of retinitis. The prognosis of the atypical disease is better than other forms of necrotizing retinopathies. A viral etiology must be considered in cases of sight-threatening and atypical posterior uveitis that is unresponsive to conventional corticosteroid treatment.

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2019/3.1138 View / Download Pdf
Vol 2-3 Commentary

Commentary: "Candidemia in tertiary hospitals in northeastern Brazil"

Sylvia Lemos Hinrichsen1

1Tropical Diseases Department, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária s/n, Recife-Pernambuco, Brazil

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2019/3.1136 View / Download Pdf