Vol 3-2 Original Research Article

COVID-19 Disease as an Acute Angiotensin 1-7 Deficiency: A Preliminary Phase 2 Study with Angiotensin 1-7 in Association with Melatonin and Cannabidiol in Symptomatic COVID19 -Infected Subjects

Paolo Lissoni1*, Franco Rovelli1, Alejandra Monzon1, Giusy Messina1, Enrica Porta1, Giorgio Porro1, Sonia Pensato1, Elio Martin1, Andrea Sassola1, Alberto Caddeo1, Carla Galli1, Nicoletta Merli1, Agnese Valentini1, Giuseppe Di Fede1

1Institute of Biological Medicine, Milan, Italy

COVID-19 disease is characterized by severe and acute immune alterations, consisting of an abnormal secretion of inflammatory cytokines, mainly IL-17, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, in association with decline in lymphocyte and increase in monocyte counts. ACE2 is the key for COVID19 entry into the cells. However, the link of viral spike protein to ACE2 receptor on cell surface would also block the ACE2 enzymatic activity itself, with a consequent diminished production of angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7), which is provided by fundamental anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties. Then, the severe and acute Ang 1-7 deficiency would allow an exaggerated cytokine-induced inflammatory response, endothelial damage, leak capillary syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Moreover, because of the documented connections occurring among ACE2, cannabinoid system and melatonin (MLT) secretion from the pineal gland, the block of ACE2 activity would also allow a concomitant deficiency of pineal-cannabinoid system axis, which plays a fundamental anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting IL-17 secretion, one of the main cytokine involved in COVID19 infection. Therefore, COVID19-induced exaggerated inflammatory response could be controlled at least in part by correcting Ang 1-7, MLT and cannabinoid deficiency through their exogenous administration. On these bases, a study was planned in 30 COVID19-infected patients with initial or important symptomatology, 16 of whom orally treated by MLT (20 mg/day in the evening) plus cannabidiol (CBD) (10 mg x 2/day) only, while the other 14 patients received also Ang 1-7 (0.5 mg 2/day orally). The results were compared to those observed in a control group of 30 COVID-19 infected patient, who received the only supportive therapy. No hospitalisation for initial respiratory failure was required in the group of patients treated by the neuroimmune regimen. In addition, most patients referred a rapid disappearance of fever and myalgia, as well as a relief of asthenia, particularly in those concomitantly treated with Ang 1-7. On the contrary, 5/30 (17%) control patients required hospitalisation. The difference was statistically significant (0/30 vs 5/30, P< 0.05). This preliminary study would suggest that a neuroimmune approach consisting of MLT and CBD in association with Ang 1-7 is an effective and non-toxic regimen in the therapy of COVID19-related symptoms, which could also control the clinical evolution of disease and reduce the need of hospitalisation.

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2018/2.1162 View / Download Pdf
Vol 3-2 Research Article

Investigation on Influenza A and B Virus from People Entering China via the Tianjin Port in 2019

Biyu1†, Pang Zheng2†, Shao Lijun1, Tang Yunfeng1, Niu Guoyu1*

1School of Public Health, WeiFang Medical University, China

2Tianjin International Joint Academy of Biomedicine, Tianjin, China

Objective: To investigate the frequency of influenza A and influenza B infections in people entering China at Tianjin port during 2019, so as to provide the basis for preventing the spread and control of influenza A and influenza B virus in China, and preliminarily assess the risk of entry passengers.

Methods: The throat swabs of entry personnel at Tianjin port in 2019 were collected, and influenza A and influenza B virus in the samples were detected by quantitative RT-PCR. According to the collected passenger information, combined with the experimental results, classification was carried out, and the related factors influencing the positive of influenza A and influenza B virus were analyzed.

Results: A total of 1605 throat swabs were collected. The results of quantitative RT-PCR showed that there were 40 (2.5%) cases of influenza A virus positive. No significant differences were found in gender, age and country distribution. However, in terms of entry time, the positive rate of influenza A virus was the highest in the first quarter compared with other quarters, and the difference was statistically significant. At the same time, there were 13 (0.8%) cases of influenza B virus positive in this survey. No significant differences were found in gender, country distribution and entry time, but in terms of the age of entry personnel, the positive detection rate of children and young people with influenza B infection was higher, and the difference between different age groups was statistically significant.

Conclusions: In 2019, Chinese accounted for the majority of the entry personnel at Tianjin port. The detection rates of influenza A and influenza B virus were low, while the total number of foreign immigrants was small, and the detection rate was high. The positive rate of influenza A and influenza B among different genders was similar. The positive detection rate of influenza A virus in the first quarter and influenza B virus in adolescents were relatively high. These two groups of people posed a threat to public health safety in China. Therefore, Therefore, we should focus on prevention and monitoring of key population at ports.

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Vol 3-2 Research Article

Retrospective Study of Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in Burkina Faso, from 2012 to 2016

Patindoilba Marcel Sawadogo1,2*, Kiswendsida Thierry Guiguemdé2,4, Adama Zida1,2, Nina korsaga/Somé2,3, Ibrahim Sangaré5,6, Sanata Bamba5,6, Salimata Kiemdé1, Rasmata Ouédraogo/Traoré2,4

1Parasitology-Mycology Service, Yalgado Ouédraogo University Hospital Center, Ouaga, Burkina Faso

2Training and Research Unit in Health Sciences, Ouaga University 1 Professor Joseph Ki-Zerbo (UO1 / PrZKZ), Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

3Dermatology-Venereology service, Yalgado Ouédraogo University Hospital Center, Ouaga, Burkina Faso

4Parasitology-Mycology Service, Charles de Gaulle University Hospital Center, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

5Institute of Health Sciences, Nazi Boni University, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

6Parasitology-Mycology Service, Souro Sanou University Hospital Center, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

Background: In Burkina Faso, the first cases of tegumentary leismaniasis were reported in 1960. But it was not until the 1990s that the disease was really known by the Burkinabè with the epidemic that Ouagadougou experienced at that time. Since 2000, the disease has become neglected. However, the frequency of cases diagnosed in hospitals suggests that tegumentary leismaniasis is still endemic in Ouagadougou. Hence the present study whose purpose and assess the current state of the disease in the city of Ouagadougou from 2012 to 2016.

Methods: We conducted a descriptive study on retrospective data collected from January 2012 to December 2016 in different hospitals in the city of Ouagadougou. Data were collected from clinical and laboratory registers.

Results: a total of 96 parasitologically-confirmed cases were identified. Clinical forms were mentioned in 43 patients. Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common form 25/43 (58.14%), followed by mucocutaneous leishmaniasis 8/43 (18.60%), diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis 7/43 (16.28%) and finally pseudo-leprosy Leishmaniasis 3/43 (6.98%). The Leishmaniasis / HIV association was found in 15 patients/96 (15.63%). The parasitological examination in search of amastigote forms had a positivity rate of 92/209 (44.02%). Meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®), the WHO reference drug, was the most prescribed 35/42 (83.33%).

Conclusion: Tegumentary Leishmaniasis still exists in Ouagadougou. Thus, precautions must be taken to avoid an upsurge of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ouagadougou.

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2020/2.1159 View / Download Pdf
Vol 3-2 Commentary

Curcumin, an Inhibitor of PAK1, Potential Treatment for COVID-19

Mohadeseh Nemati1, Elmira Roshani Asl1, Fahima Danesh Pouya1, Yousef Rasmi1,2*

1Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

2Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2020/2.1160 View / Download Pdf
Vol 3-1 Review Article

The Fascination of Cytokine Immunological Science

Paolo Lissoni1*, Giusy Messina1, Francesco Pelizzoni2, Franco Rovelli1, Fernando Brivio1, Alejandra Monzon1, Nadal Crivelli1, Arianna Lissoni1, Simonetta Tassoni3, Andrea Sassola1, Sonja Pensato1, Giuseppe Di Fede1

1Institute of Biological Medicine, Milan, Italy

2Cardiological Surgery Division, Niguarda Hospital, Milan, Italy

3Effata Institute, Lucca, Italy

Today, it is known that all human biological functions are under two fundamental regulatory systems, consisting of the endocrine system and the cytokine network. Moreover, it has been shown that the cytokines released from the activated immune cells do not influence only immune functions, but also the whole biological system, including the various metabolic activities, the cardiovascular system, and the functionless of the neuroendocrine system itself. Unfortunately, despite the well-demonstrated importance of cytokines in maintaining the status of health, from a clinical point of view the routine evaluation of the cytokine system still remains unconsidered to establish the status of health, since it is investigated only in severe conditions, such as septic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation and respiratory distress, which have been demonstrated to be due to an abnormal endogenous production of inflammatory cytokines, namely IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta. This clinical deficiency was depended on several factors, particularly on the complexity of cytokine interactions themselves, but also on the decision to use artificial molecules, such as monoclonal antibodies against the various cytokines, to counteract their eventual abnormally enhanced endogenous production, rather than to investigate the mechanisms responsible for their altered production and to correct eventual alterations. The main reason of the complexity of the cytokine network is related to the fact that the interactions occurring among the different cytokines are often founded on positive feedback mechanisms, then on reciprocal stimulatory actions, while the endocrine system is substantially based on negative feedback circuits. The aim of the present review is to propose a synthetic knowledge regarding the main effects and the source of origin of each single interleukin discovered up to now, to elaborate a first preliminary fundamental physiology of the cytokine network.

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2020/1.1155 View / Download Pdf