Vol 6-2 Mini Review Article

Influenza epidemics in Europe, nursing homes and vaccination of healthcare workers

Edward Goldstein Senior Biostatistician

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA

During the 2022-2023 season, influenza circulation levels in the European Union (EU) have increased substantially compared to the 2021-2022 season but were still generally somewhat lower compared to pre-pandemic influenza seasons. Studies have shown that influenza epidemics in the EU countries were associated with a heavy toll of mortality for different principal causes of death including respiratory, cardiac and other causes. Mortality data also suggest that residents of long-term care facilities represent a sizeable share of all cases of death in the EU, and an even higher share among deaths stemming from infections with respiratory viruses, including influenza. Influenza vaccination coverage for healthcare workers in nursing homes in many EU countries is moderate to low, whereas evidence in the literature suggests that higher influenza vaccination coverage levels for healthcare workers result in a significant reduction in all-cause mortality during influenza seasons, both in nursing home residents as well as in hospital patients, though the magnitude of that effect varies with influenza season. Here, we review the above evidence, and as well as the effect of different strategies for boosting influenza vaccination coverage in healthcare workers, such as mandatory vaccination, educational initiatives/outreach activities and availability of on-sight vaccination.

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Vol 6-1 Case Report

Linezolid-Associated Black Tongue: A Rare Adverse Drug Reaction

Dr. Gyanshankar P. Mishra

Associate Professor, Dept. of Respiratory Medicine, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College, C.A. Road, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India– 440018;

Linezolid is an effective second-line anti-tuberculosis drug. However, the use of linezolid has been associated with rare adverse drug reactions (ADRs), one of which is the linezolid-associated black hairy tongue (BHT). This reaction is characterized by a black or dark brown discoloration of the tongue, which may be accompanied by a metallic or bitter taste. In this case report, we present a 19-year-old male patient who developed linezolid-associated black tongue while receiving linezolid as part of an all-oral, longer-course treatment regime for multidrug-resistant/rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB). The patient's BHT was only cosmetic and resolved upon discontinuation of linezolid. This case report aims to raise awareness of this rare ADR and the importance of close monitoring and potential withdrawal of linezolid to optimize treatment outcomes.

DOI: 10.29245/2689-9981/2023/1.1170 View / Download Pdf